White Collar Crime: A guide to corporate fraud.

White collar crime is an umbrella term for various non-violent criminal activities committed in a business or professional setting. 

These crimes often involve financial deceit, manipulation, or theft, causing significant damage to businesses, individuals, and economies. 

In this article, we’ll provide an engaging, easy-to-understand guide to white collar crime, touching upon its various forms and the importance of corporate fraud investigations in addressing these offences.

What is White Collar Crime?

The term “white collar crime” was coined by sociologist Edwin Sutherland in the 1930s to describe criminal activities perpetrated by professionals in business environments. 

These crimes are often complex, sophisticated, and difficult to detect, as they typically involve manipulation of financial information or abuse of power for personal gain.

White collar crime can take many forms, and we’ll explore some of the most common types below.

Falsification of Financial Information

One of the most well-known forms of white collar crime is the falsification of financial information. This can include activities such as:

Cooking the books: Manipulating financial records to give a false impression of a company’s financial health.

Fraudulent financial reporting: Misrepresenting a company’s financial performance to deceive investors, regulators, or other stakeholders.

Tax evasion: Illegally avoiding paying taxes by underreporting income, inflating deductions, or hiding money in offshore accounts.

A high-profile example of this type of crime is the Enron scandal, where the company’s executives manipulated financial records to hide massive debt and inflate the company’s value, ultimately leading to its collapse.


Self-dealing occurs when an individual in a position of authority or trust abuses their power for personal gain. This can include:

Insider trading: Buying or selling stocks based on non-public information, which provides an unfair advantage over other investors.

Kickbacks: Receiving or providing a bribe, often in exchange for favourable treatment in business dealings.

Conflicts of interest: Acting in one’s own interest rather than the best interest of the company or its stakeholders.

An example of self-dealing is the Martha Stewart insider trading case, where the lifestyle mogul was convicted for lying about her reasons for selling shares in a company after receiving non-public information.

Money Laundering

Money laundering is the process of concealing the origins of illegally obtained money by passing it through a complex sequence of transactions to make it appear legitimate. This white collar crime is often linked to other criminal activities, such as drug trafficking or organised crime.

The infamous Panama Papers leak exposed a vast network of offshore companies and individuals involved in money laundering and tax evasion, shining a light on the global scale of this type of white collar crime.

Securities and Commodities Fraud

Securities and commodities fraud involves manipulating the market or deceiving investors in stocks, bonds, commodities, or other financial instruments. Some common examples include:

Ponzi schemes: Fraudulent investment schemes where returns are paid to earlier investors using new investors’ funds, rather than profits from legitimate business activities.

Pump-and-dump schemes: Coordinated efforts to artificially inflate a stock’s price through false or misleading information, followed by selling the stock at the inflated price for profit.

The Bernie Madoff Ponzi scheme, which defrauded investors of billions of pounds, is a prime example of securities fraud.

Intellectual Property Theft

Intellectual property theft involves stealing ideas, inventions, or creative works without permission from the rightful owner. This can include:

Copyright infringement: Illegally copying, distributing, or using copyrighted material without permission.

Trade secret theft: Stealing confidential business information, such as formulas, processes, or techniques, for personal gain or to benefit a competitor.

Patent infringement: Using, selling, or manufacturing a patented invention without the patent holder’s permission.

A notable example of intellectual property theft is the case of Chinese company Huawei, which was accused of stealing trade secrets from US companies like T-Mobile, leading to significant legal battles and increased tensions between the two nations.

The Importance of Corporate Fraud Investigations

Given the complexity and sophistication of white collar crime, specialised corporate fraud investigations are often necessary to uncover and address these offences. 

Organisations like us at Covert Ltd offer expert services in this area, helping businesses and individuals protect themselves from financial harm and bring criminals to justice.

Corporate fraud investigators employ a range of techniques and tools to uncover white collar crime, including forensic accounting, digital forensics, and surveillance. 

They work closely with law enforcement agencies, regulators, and legal teams to gather evidence and build cases against the perpetrators.

How to Protect Yourself and Your Business from White Collar Crime

Prevention is always better than cure, so it’s essential to take proactive steps to protect yourself and your business from white collar crime. Here are some recommendations:

Implement robust internal controls: Establish strong financial and operational controls, including segregation of duties, regular audits, and a system of checks and balances to prevent and detect fraudulent activities.

Promote a culture of integrity: Encourage a workplace environment that values honesty, transparency, and accountability. Foster open communication and provide a safe space for employees to report suspicions of fraud or misconduct.

Conduct thorough background checks: Before hiring employees, especially those in positions of trust or authority, conduct comprehensive background checks to identify any red flags or potential risks.

Invest in employee training: Educate employees about the various forms of white collar crime, warning signs, and reporting procedures. Empower them to be part of the solution in combating these offences.

Engage external experts when needed: If you suspect white collar crime within your organisation, consider hiring a corporate fraud investigator to uncover the truth and guide you through the legal process.

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